Blueberry – Wikipedia

Blueberry – Wikipedia

This article is about the “North American” blueberry. For the “European” blueberry, see Bilberry.

Blueberries displaying numerous degrees of maturation. IG = Immature Green, GP = Green Pink, BP = Blue Pink, and R = Ripe.

Blueberries are a widely distributed and huge institution of perennial flowering flowers with blue or red berries. They are classified within the segment Cyanococcus inside the genus Vaccinium. Vaccinium also includes cranberries, bilberries, huckleberries and Madeira blueberries.[1] Commercial blueberries—both wild (lowbush) and cultivated (highbush)—are all local to North America. The highbush varieties were introduced into Europe throughout the Nineteen Thirties.[2]
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Blueberries are generally prostrate shrubs that may range in length from 10 centimeters (4 inches) to 4 meters (thirteen feet) in height. In industrial manufacturing of blueberries, the species with small, pea-size berries developing on low-level bushes are called “lowbush blueberries” (synonymous with “wild”), whilst the species with large berries growing on taller, cultivated trees are known as “highbush blueberries”. Canada is the main manufacturer of lowbush blueberries, at the same time as america produces some forty% of the world supply of highbush blueberries.Origin and history of cultivation[edit]

Flowers on a cultivated blueberry bush

The genus Vaccinium has a ordinarily circumpolar distribution, with species specifically present in North America, Europe, and Asia.[1] Many commercially-offered species with English commonplace names consisting of “blueberry” are from North America,[three] specifically Atlantic Canada and Northeastern United States for wild (lowbush) blueberries, and numerous US states and British Columbia for cultivated (highbush) blueberries.[4][five] First Nations peoples of Canada fed on wild blueberries for millennia before North America was colonized by Europeans.[4] Highbush blueberries were first cultivated in New Jersey around the start of the twentieth century.[five][three]

North American native species of blueberries are grown commercially inside the Southern Hemisphere in Australia, New Zealand and South American nations. The Colombian or Andean blueberry, Vaccinium meridionale, is wild-harvested and usually to be had domestically.[6] Several different wild shrubs of the genus Vaccinium also produce commonly eaten blue berries, which includes the predominantly European Vaccinium myrtillus and different bilberries, which in many languages have a name that interprets to “blueberry” in English.Description[edit]

Five species of blueberries develop wild in Canada, together with Vaccinium myrtilloides, Vaccinium angustifolium and Vaccinium corymbosum, which develop on wooded area floors or close to swamps.[7] Wild (lowbush) blueberries are not planted by farmers, however alternatively are controlled on berry fields known as “barrens”.[four]

Wild blueberries reproduce by means of go pollination, with every seed generating a plant with a exceptional genetic composition, causing in the equal species variations in boom, productiveness, color, leaf characteristics, sickness resistance, taste, and other fruit traits.[7] The mother plant develops underground stems known as rhizomes, permitting the plant to form a network of rhizomes growing a large patch (known as a clone) which is genetically distinct.[7] Floral and leaf buds expand intermittently alongside the stems of the plant, with each floral bud giving upward push to five–6 plant life and the eventual fruit.[7] Wild blueberries opt for an acidic soil between 4.2 and five.2 pH and best moderate amounts of moisture.[7] They have a hardy bloodless tolerance in their Canadian variety.[7] Fruit productivity of lowbush blueberries varies by the diploma of pollination, genetics of the clone, soil fertility, water availability, insect infestation, plant illnesses and local growing conditions.[7] Wild (lowbush) blueberries have a median mature weight of 0.three grams (1⁄128 ounces).[7]

Highbush (cultivated) blueberries opt for sandy or loam soils, having shallow root structures that benefit from mulch and fertilizer.[eight] The leaves of highbush blueberries can be either deciduous or evergreen, ovate to lanceolate, and 1–8 cm (1⁄2–three+1⁄4 in) lengthy and 0.5–3.5 cm (1⁄four–1+three⁄8 in) huge. The flowers are bell-formed, white, faded pink or red, once in a while tinged greenish.

The fruit is a berry five–16 mm (three⁄16–five⁄8 in) in diameter with a flared crown on the end; they’re faded greenish at first, then reddish-red, and in the end uniformly blue whilst ripe.[8] They are blanketed in a defensive coating of powdery epicuticular wax, colloquially known as the “bloom”.[7] They usually have a sweet taste when mature, with variable acidity.[7][eight] Blueberry timber commonly undergo fruit within the center of the developing season: fruiting instances are tormented by nearby conditions including climate, altitude and latitude, so the time of harvest inside the northern hemisphere can vary from May to August.[7][eight]Species[edit]

Note: habitat and range summaries are from the Flora of New Brunswick, posted in 1986 by means of Harold R. Hinds, and Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast, posted in 1994 by way of Pojar and MacKinnon.

Some other blue-fruited species of Vaccinium:Vaccinium koreanumVaccinium myrtillus (bilberry or European blueberry)Vaccinium uliginosum (bathroom bilberry/blueberry, northern bilberry or western blueberry)

Wild blueberry in autumn foliage, Pilot Mountain, North Carolina, in October

A maturing ‘Polaris’ blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)

A choice of blueberries, showing the everyday sizes of the berries. The scale is marked in centimeters.

The lowbush varieties are V. angustifolium, V. boreale, V. mytilloides, V. pallidum, and V. angustifolium × V. corymbosum. They are nevertheless grown in a similar way to pre-Columbian semi-wild cultivation, i.e. decrease and burn. The highbush types are darrowii and corymbosum. Rabbiteye (V. ashei/V. virgatum) is taken into consideration one-of-a-kind from both high- and lowbush.[three]Identification[edit]

Commercially offered blueberries are typically from species that obviously occur best in japanese and north-crucial North America. Other sections within the genus are local to other elements of the arena, such as the Pacific Northwest and southern United States,[10] South America, Europe and Asia. Other wild shrubs in a lot of these regions produce similar-looking fit to be eaten berries, inclusive of huckleberries and whortleberries (North America) and bilberries (Europe). These species are from time to time referred to as “blueberries” and are offered as blueberry jam or different products.

The names of blueberries in languages apart from English frequently translate as “blueberry”, e.g. Scots blaeberry and Norwegian blåbær. Blaeberry, blåbær and French myrtilles commonly seek advice from the European native bilberry (V. myrtillus), even as bleuets refers to the North American blueberry. Russian голубика (“blue berry”) does now not refer to blueberries, which are non-native and almost-unknown in Russia, but rather to their close household, bathroom bilberries (V. uliginosum).

Cyanococcus blueberries can be outstanding from the almost equal-searching bilberries by way of their flesh coloration while cut in 1/2. Ripe blueberries have light inexperienced flesh, while bilberries, whortleberries and huckleberries are purple or purple throughout.Food[edit]

Blueberries are offered fresh or are processed as for my part quick frozen (IQF) fruit, purée, juice, or dried or infused berries. These may then be utilized in a number of patron items, together with jellies, jams, pies, muffins, snack foods, or as an additive to breakfast cereals.

Blueberry jam is crafted from blueberries, sugar, water, and fruit pectin. Blueberry sauce is a sweet sauce organized the usage of blueberries as a primary ingredient.

Blueberry wine is made from the flesh and skin of the berries, that is fermented and then matured; commonly the lowbush variety is used.Nutrients[edit]

Blueberries include 14% carbohydrates, 0.7% protein, zero.three% fat and eighty four% water (desk). They include most effective negligible quantities of micronutrients, with slight levels (relative to respective Daily Values) (DV) of the vital nutritional mineral manganese, vitamin C, diet K and dietary fiber (desk). Generally, nutrient contents of blueberries are a low percent of the DV (table). A 100 gram serving affords a tremendously low caloric cost of fifty seven kcal with a glycemic load of 6.Phytochemicals and studies[edit]